The Journal covers all disciplines in the field of theoretical and applied mechanics, including solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, dynamics and control, and biomechanics. It explores analytical, computational and experimental progresses in all areas of mechanics. The Journal also encourages research in interdisciplinary subjects, and serves as a bridge between mechanics...

The recent development of the elliptic model (He, et al. Phy. Rev. E, 2006), which predicts that the space-time correlation function Cu(r,τ) in a turbulent flow has a scaling form Cu(rE, 0) with rE being a combined space-time separation involving spatial separation r and time delay τ, has stimulated considerable experimental efforts aimed at testing the model in various turbulent flows. In this paper, we review some recent experimental investigations of the space-time correlation function in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The experiments conducted at different representative locations in the convection cell confirmed the predictions of the elliptic model for the velocity field and passive scalar field, such as local temperature and shadowgraph images. The understanding of the functional form of Cu(r,τ) has a wide variety of applications in the analysis of experimental and numerical data and in the study of the statistical properties of small-scale turbulence. A few examples are discussed in the review.

Shape modeling is fundamental to the analysis of dynamic environment and motion around asteroid. Chang'E-2 successfully made a flyby of Asteroid 4179 Toutatis and obtained plenty of high-resolution images during the mission. In this paper, the modeling method and preliminary model of Asteroid Toutatis are discussed. First, the optical images obtained by Chang'E-2 are analyzed. Terrain and silhouette features in images are described. Then, the modeling method based on previous radar model and preliminary information from optical images is proposed. A preliminary polyhedron model of Asteroid Toutatis is established. Finally, the spherical harmonic coefficients of Asteroid Toutatis based on the polyhedron model are obtained. Some parameters of model are analyzed and compared. Although the model proposed in this paper is only a preliminary model, this work offers a valuable reference for future high-resolution models.

The motion of a surface vehicle on/above an irregular object is investigated for a potential interest in the insitu explorations to asteroids of the solar system. A global valid numeric method, including detailed gravity and geomorphology, is developed to mimic the behaviors of the test particles governed by the orbital equations and surface coupling effects. A general discussion on the surface mechanical environment of a specified asteroid, 1620 Geographos, is presented to make a global evaluation of the surface vehicle's working conditions. We show the connections between the natural trajectories near the ground and differential features of the asteroid surface, which describes both the good and bad of typical terrains from the viewpoint of vehicles' dynamic performances. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to take a further look at the trajectories of particles initializing near the surface. The simulations reveal consistent conclusions with the analysis, i.e., the openfield flat ground and slightly concave basins/valleys are the best choices for the vehicles' dynamical security. The dependence of decending trajectories on the releasing height is studied as an application; the results show that the pole direction (where the centrifugal force is zero) is the most stable direction in which the shift of a natural trajectory will be well limited after landing. We present this work as an example for pre-analysis that provides guidance to engineering design of the exploration site and routing the surface vehicles.

This paper summarizes a few cases of spacecraft orbital motion around asteroid for which averaging method can be applied, i.e., when central body rotates slowly, fast, and when a spacecraft is near to the resonant orbits between the spacecraft mean motion and the central body's rotation. Averaging conditions for these cases are given. As a major extension, a few classes of near resonant orbits are analyzed by the averaging method. Then some resulted conclusions of these averaging analyses are applied to understand the stability regions in a numerical experiment. Some stability conclusions are obtained. As a typical example, it is shown in detail that near circular 1:2 resonant orbit is always unstable.

Asteroid exploration is currently one of the most concerned topics among international space agencies. Orbital dynamics and navigation are obviously crucial for asteroid exploration. This paper aims to give a brief review on the dynamics, control and navigation of asteroid reconnaissance orbits, including the heliocentric transfer orbit and near asteroid orbit. The developments in optimization techniques of the transfer segment are discussed in detail. We surveyed global researches in this field and made comments on several important progresses. The final section proposed a prospective of future studies with emphasis on the key techniques of these issues in the asteroid exploration missions.

A method for classifying orbits near asteroids under a polyhedral gravitational field is presented, and may serve as a valuable reference for spacecraft orbit design for asteroid exploration. The orbital dynamics near asteroids are very complex. According to the variation in orbit characteristics after being affected by gravitational perturbation during the periapsis passage, orbits near an asteroid can be classified into 9 categories: (1) surroundingto-surrounding, (2) surrounding-to-surface, (3) surroundingto-infinity, (4) infinity-to-infinity, (5) infinity-to-surface, (6) infinity-to-surrounding, (7) surface-to-surface, (8) surfaceto-surrounding, and (9) surface-to-infinity. Assume that the orbital elements are constant near the periapsis, the gravitation potential is expanded into a harmonic series. Then, the influence of the gravitational perturbation on the orbit is studied analytically. The styles of orbits are dependent on the argument of periapsis, the periapsis radius, and the periapsis velocity. Given the argument of periapsis, the orbital energy before and after perturbation can be derived according to the periapsis radius and the periapsis velocity. Simulations have been performed for orbits in the gravitational field of 216 Kleopatra. The numerical results are well consistent with analytic predictions.

Three surface integral approaches of the acoustic analogies are studied to predict the noise from three conceptual configurations of three-dimensional high-lift low-noise wings. The approaches refer to the Kirchhoff method, the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) method of the permeable integral surface and the Curle method that is known as a special case of the FW-H method. The first two approaches are used to compute the noise generated by the core flow region where the energetic structures exist. The last approach is adopted to predict the noise specially from the pressure perturbation on the wall. A new way to construct the integral surface that encloses the core region is proposed for the first two methods. Considering the local properties of the flow around the complex object–the actual wing with high-lift devices–the integral surface based on the vorticity is constructed to follow the flow structures. The surface location is discussed for the Kirchhoff method and the FW-H method because a common surface is used for them. The noise from the core flow region is studied on the basis of the dependent integral quantities, which are indicated by the Kirchhoff formulation and by the FW-H formulation. The role of each wall component on noise contribution is analyzed using the Curle formulation. Effects of the volume integral terms of Lighthill's stress tensors on the noise prediction are then evaluated by comparing the results of the Curle method with the other two methods.

The strain-rate dependent response of porcine skin oriented in the fiber direction is explored under tensile loading. Quasi-static response was obtained at strain rates in the range of 10-3 s-1 to 25 s-1. Characterization of the response at even greater strain rates is accomplished by measuring the spatio-temporal evolution of the particle velocity and strain in a thin strip subjected to high speed impact loading that generates uniaxial stress conditions. These experiments indicate the formation of shock waves; the shock Hugoniot that relates particle velocity to the shock velocity and the dynamic stress to dynamic strain is obtained directly through experimental measurements, without any assumptions regarding the constitutive properties of the material.

Viscoelasticity and poroelasticity commonly coexist as time-dependent behaviors in polymer gels. Engineering applications often require knowledge of both behaviors separated; however, few methods exist to decouple viscoelastic and poroelastic properties of gels. We propose a method capable of separating viscoelasticity and poroelasticity of gels in various mechanical tests. The viscoelastic characteristic time and the poroelastic diffusivity of a gel define an intrinsic material length scale of the gel. The experimental setup gives a sample length scale, over which the solvent migrates in the gel. By setting the sample length to be much larger or smaller than the material length, the viscoelasticity and poroelasticity of the gel will dominate at different time scales in a test. Therefore, the viscoelastic and poroelastic properties of the gel can be probed separately at different time scales of the test. We further validate the method by finite-element models and stress-relaxation experiments.

In microcantilever-based label-free biodetection technologies, deflection changes induced by adsorptions of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules on Au-layer surface are greatly affected by the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of DNA biofilm. In this paper, the elastic properties of dsDNA biofilm are studied. First, the Parsegian's empirical potential based on a mesoscopic liquid crystal theory is employed to describe the interaction energy among coarse-grained DNA cylinders. Then, considering a Gaussian distribution of DNA interaxial distance, the thought experiment method is used to derive an analytical expression for Young's modulus of DNA biofilm with a stochastic packing pattern for the first time. Results show that Young's modulus of DNA biofilm is on the order of 10MPa. These findings could provide a simple and effective method to evaluate the mechanical properties of soft biofilm on substrate.

The recent development of the elliptic model (He, et al. Phy. Rev. E, 2006), which predicts that the space-time correlation function Cu(r,τ) in a turbulent flow has a scaling form Cu(rE, 0) with rE being a combined space-time separation involving spatial separation r and time delay τ, has stimulated considerable experimental efforts aimed at testing the model in various turbulent flows. In this paper, we review some recent experimental investigations of the space-time correlation function in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The experiments conducted at different representative locations in the convection cell confirmed the predictions of the elliptic model for the velocity field and passive scalar field, such as local temperature and shadowgraph images. The understanding of the functional form of Cu(r,τ) has a wide variety of applications in the analysis of experimental and numerical data and in the study of the statistical properties of small-scale turbulence. A few examples are discussed in the review.

The present experimental work is devoted to investigate a new space-time correlation model for the turbulent boundary layer over a flat and a wavy walls. A turbulent boundary layer flow at Reθ = 2 460 is measured by tomographic time-resolved particle image velocimetry (Tomo-TRPIV). The space-time correlations of instantaneous streamwise fluctuation velocity are calculated at 3 different wall-normal locations in logarithmic layer. It is found that the scales of coherent structure increase with moving far away from the wall. The growth of scales is a manifestation of the growth of prevalent coherent structures in the turbulent boundary layer like hairpin vortex or hairpin packets when they lift up. The resulting contours of the space-time correlation exhibit elliptic-like shapes rather than straight lines. It is suggested that, instead of Taylor hypothesis, the elliptic model of the space-time correlation is valid for the wallbounded turbulent flow over either a flat wall or a wavy wall. The elliptic iso-correlation curves have a uniform preferred orientation whose slope is determined by the convection velocity. The convection velocity derived from the space-time correlation represents the velocity at which the large-scale eddies carry small-scale eddies. The sweep velocity represents the distortions of the small-scale eddies and is intimately associated with the fluctuation velocity in the logarithmic layer of turbulent boundary layers. The nondimensionalized correlation curves confirm that the elliptic model is more proper for approximating the space-time correlation than Taylor hypothesis, because the latter can not embody the small-scale motions which have non-negligible distortions. A second flow over a wavy wall is also recorded using TRPIV. Due to the combined effect of shear layers and the adverse pressure gradient, the space-time correlation does not show an elliptic-like shape at some specific heights over the wavy wall, but in the outer region of the wavy wallbounded flow, the elliptic model remains valid.

A multifractal model is developed to connect the Lagrangian multifractal dimensions with their Eulerian counterparts. We propose that the characteristic time scale of a Lagrangian quantity should be the Lagrangian time scale, and it should not be the Eulerian time scale which was widely used in previous studies on Lagrangian statistics. Using the present model, we can obtain the scaling exponents of Lagrangian velocity structure functions from the existing data or models of scaling exponents of Eulerian velocity structure functions. This model is validated by comparing its prediction with the results of experiments, direct numerical simulations, and the previous theoretical models. The comparison shows that the proposed model can better predict the scaling exponents of Lagrangian velocity structure functions, especially for orders larger than 6.

In ground tests of hypersonic scramjet, the highenthalpy airstream produced by burning hydrocarbon fuels often contains contaminants of water vapor and carbon dioxide. The contaminants may change the ignition characteristics of fuels between ground tests and real flights. In order to properly assess the influence of the contaminants on ignition characteristics of hydrocarbon fuels, the effect of water vapor and carbon dioxide on the ignition delay times of China RP-3 kerosene was studied behind reflected shock waves in a preheated shock tube. Experiments were conducted over a wider temperature range of 800-1 500 K, at a pressure of 0.3MPa, equivalence ratios of 0.5 and 1, and oxygen concentration of 20%. Ignition delay times were determined from the onset of the excited radical OH emission together with the pressure profile. Ignition delay times were measured for four cases: (1) clean gas, (2) gas vitiated with 10% and 20% water vapor in mole, (3) gas vitiated with 10% carbon dioxide in mole, and (4) gas vitiated with 10% water vapor and 10% carbon dioxide, 20% water vapor and 10% carbon dioxide in mole. The results show that carbon dioxide produces an inhibiting effect at temperatures below 1 300K when Φ= 0.5, whereas water vapor appears to accelerate the ignition process below a critical temperature of about 1 000K when Φ= 0.5. When both water vapor and carbon dioxide exist together, a minor inhibiting effect is observed at Φ= 0.5, while no effect is found at Φ= 1.0. The results are also discussed preliminary by considering both the combustion reaction mechanism and the thermophysics properties of the fuel mixtures. The current measurements demonstrate vitiation effects of water vapor and carbon dioxide on the autoignition characteristics of China RP-3 kerosene at air-like O2 concentration. It is important to account for such effects when data are extrapolated from ground testing to real flight conditions.

In the paper, we present a detailed analysis of the takeoff mechanics of fruitflies which perform voluntary takeoff flights. Wing and body kinematics of the insects during takeoff were measured using high-speed video techniques. Based on the measured data, inertia force acting on the insect was computed and aerodynamic force and moment of the wings were calculated by the method of computational fluid dynamics. Subtracting the aerodynamic force and the weight from the inertia force gave the leg force. The following has been shown. In its voluntary takeoff, a fruitfly jumps during the first wingbeat and becomes airborne at the end of the first wingbeat. When it is in the air, the fly has a relatively large “initial” pitch-up rotational velocity (more than 5 000°/s) resulting from the jumping, but in about 5 wingbeats, the pitch-up rotation is stopped and the fly goes into a quasi-hovering flight. The fly mainly uses the force of jumping legs to lift itself into the air (the force from the flapping wings during the jumping is only about 5%-10% of the leg force). The main role played by the flapping wings in the takeoff is to produce a pitch-down moment to nullify the large "initial" pitch-up rotational velocity (otherwise, the fly would have kept pitching-up and quickly fallen down).

Twisting chirality is widely observed in artificial and natural materials and structures at different length scales. In this paper, we theoretically investigate the effect of twisting chiral morphology on the mechanical properties of elastic beams by using the Timoshenko beam model. Particular attention is paid to the transverse bending and axial buckling of a pre-twisted rectangular beam. The analytical solution is first derived for the deflection of a clamped-free beam under a uniformly or periodically distributed transverse force. The critical buckling condition of the beam subjected to its selfweight and an axial compressive force is further solved. The results show that the twisting morphology can significantly improve the resistance of beams to both transverse bending and axial buckling. This study helps understand some phenomena associated with twisting chirality in nature and provides inspirations for the design of novel devices and structures.

In this paper, the free vibration of magnetoelectro- elastic (MEE) nanoplates is investigated based on the nonlocal theory and Kirchhoff plate theory. The MEE nanoplate is assumed as all edges simply supported rectangular plate subjected to the biaxial force, external electric potential, external magnetic potential, and temperature rise. By using the Hamilton's principle, the governing equations and boundary conditions are derived and then solved analytically to obtain the natural frequencies of MEE nanoplates. A parametric study is presented to examine the effect of the nonlocal parameter, thermo-magneto-electro-mechanical loadings and aspect ratio on the vibration characteristics of MEE nanoplates. It is found that the natural frequency is quite sensitive to the mechanical loading, electric loading and magnetic loading, while it is insensitive to the thermal loading.

Nanoscale PbxLa1-xTi1-x/4O3 (PLT) thin film has been fabricated on Pt\Ti\SiO2\Si substrates by chemical solution deposition (CSD) method. Ferroelectricity of the fresh-made PLT thin film has been clearly detected through piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) by writing reversible ferroelectric domains. However, PLT thin film also shows off-standard ferroelectric hysteresis loops highly dependent on frequency, indicating large amount of mobile space charges in the film. Subsequent current-voltage (C-V) studies show that sandwich-like Pt\PLT\Pt structure exhibits notable bipolar resistive switching (BRS) characteristics with high stability (> 103 switching cycles). It is found that the C-V curves of both high- and low-resistance states have the feature of space-charge-limited current (SCLC) conduction, indicating important roles of defects in the conduction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement further verifies that oxygen vacancies based conductive filament mechanism is likely responsible for the observed RS effect. Our demonstration of stable RS effect in the PLT thin film and its possible coupling with ferroelectricity is promising in device development and applications, such as development of ferroelectric-tunable RS memories.

Self-shaping materials such as shape memory polymers have recently drawn considerable attention owing to their high shape-changing ability in response to changes in ambient conditions, and thereby have promising applications in the biomedical, biosensing, soft robotics and aerospace fields. Their design is a crucial issue of both theoretical and technological interest. Motivated by the shape-changing ability of Towel Gourd tendril helices during swelling/deswelling, we present a strategy for realizing self-shaping function through the deformation of micro/nanohelices. To guide the design and fabrication of selfshaping materials, the shape equations of bent configurations, twisted belts, and helices of slender chiral composite are developed using the variation method. Furthermore, it is numerically shown that the shape changes of a chiral composite can be tuned by the deformation of micro/nanohelices and the fabricated fiber directions. This work paves a new way to create self-shaping composites.

At present the mechanical model of the interaction between a disc cutter and rock mainly concerns indentation experiment, linear cutting experiment and tunnel boring machine (TBM) on-site data. This is not in line with the actual rock-breaking movement of the disc cutter and impedes to some extent the research on the rock-breaking mechanism, wear mechanism and design theory. Therefore, our study focuses on the interaction between the slantingly installed disc cutter and rock, developing a model in accordance with the actual rock-breaking movement. Displacement equations are established through an analysis of the velocity vector at the rock-breaking point of the disc cutter blade; the functional relationship between the displacement parameters at the rock-breaking point and its rectangular coordinates is established through an analysis of micro-displacement vectors at the rock-breaking point, thus leading to the geometric equations of rock deformation caused by the slantingly installed disc cutter. Considering the basically linear relationship between the cutting force of disc cutters and the rock deformation before and after the leap break of rock, we express the constitutive relations of rock deformation as generalized Hooke's law and analyze the effect of the slanting installation angle of disc cutters on the rock-breaking force. This will, as we hope, make groundbreaking contributions to the development of the design theory and installation practice of TBM.

A discrete element method (DEM) called particle flow code (PFC2D) was used to construct a model for Brazilian disc splitting test in the present study. Based on the experimental results of intact Brazilian disc of rock-like material, a set of micro-parameters in PFC2D that reflected the macro-mechanical behavior of rock-like materials were obtained. And then PFC2D was used to simulate Brazilian splitting test for jointed rock mass specimens and specimen containing a central straight notch. The effect of joint angle and notch angle on the tensile strength and failure mode of jointed rock specimens was detailed analyzed. In order to reveal the meso-mechanical mechanism of crack coalescence, displacement trend lines were applied to analyze the displacement evolution during the crack initiation and propagation. The investigated conclusions can be described as follows. (1) The tensile strength of jointed rock mass disc specimen is dependent to the joint angle. As the joint angle increases, the tensile strength of jointed rock specimen takes on a nonlinear variance. (2) The tensile strength of jointed rock mass disc specimen containing a central straight notch distributes as a function of both joint angle and notch angle. (3) Three major failure modes, i.e., pure tensile failure, shear failure and mixed tension and shear failure mode are observed in jointed rock mass disc specimens under Brazilian test. (4) The notch angle and joint angle play important roles on crack initiation and propagation characteristics of jointed rock mass disc specimen containing a central straight notch under Brazilian test.

Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) coupling processes in unsaturated soils are very important in both theoretical researches and engineering applications. A coupled formulation based on hybrid mixture theory is derived to model the THM coupling behavior of unsaturated soils. The free-energy and dissipative functions for different phases are derived from Taylor's series expansions. Constitutive relations for THM coupled behaviors of unsaturated soils, which include deformation, entropy change, fluid flow, heat conduction, and dynamic compatibility conditions on the interfaces, are then established. The number of field equations is shown to be equal to the number of unknown variables; thus, a closure of this coupling problem is established. In addition to modifications of the physical conservation equations with coupling effect terms, the constitutive equations, which consider the coupling between elastoplastic deformation of the soil skeleton, fluid flow, and heat transfer, are also derived.

This paper attempts to estimate the ultimate strength of a laminated composite only based on its constituent properties measured independently. Three important issues involved have been systematically addressed, i.e., stress calculation for the constituent fiber and matrix materials, failure detection for the lamina and laminate upon the internal stresses in their constituents, and input data determination of the constituents from monolithic measurements. There are three important factors to influence the accuracy of the strength prediction. One is the stress concentration factor (SCF) in the matrix. Another is matrix plasticity. The third is thermal residual stresses in the constituents. It is these three factors, however, that have not been sufficiently well realized in the composite community. One can easily find out the elastic and strength parameters of a great many laminae and laminates in the current literature. Unfortunately, necessary information to determine the SCF, the matrix plasticity, and the thermal residual stresses of the composites is rare or incomplete. A useful design methodology is demonstrated in the paper.

In this paper, the S-frames, the front side rail structures of automobile, were investigated for crashworthiness. Various cross-sections including regular polygon, nonconvex polygon and multi-cell with inner stiffener sections were investigated in terms of energy absorption of S-frames. It was determined through extensive numerical simulation that a multi-cell S-frame with double vertical internal stiffeners can absorb more energy than the other configurations. Shape optimization was also carried out to improve energy absorption of the S-frame with a rectangular section. The center composite design of experiment and the sequential response surface method (SRSM) were adopted to construct the approximate design sub-problem, which was then solved by the feasible direction method. An innovative double Sframe was obtained from the optimal result. The optimum configuration of the S-frame was crushed numerically and more plastic hinges as well as shear zones were observed during the crush process. The energy absorption efficiency of the structure with the optimal configuration was improved compared to the initial configuration.

This paper is concerned with the connection between the Volterra series and the regular perturbation method in nonlinear systems analyses. It is revealed for the first time that, for a forced polynomial nonlinear system, if its derived linear system is a damped dissipative system, the steady response obtained through the regular perturbation method is exactly identical to the response given by the Volterra series. On the other hand, if the derived linear system is an undamped conservative system, then the Volterra series is incapable of modeling the forced polynomial nonlinear system. Numerical examples are further presented to illustrate these points. The results provide a new criterion for quickly judging whether the Volterra series is applicable for modeling a given polynomial nonlinear system.

Delaminations in structures may significantly reduce the stiffness and strength of the structures and may affect their vibration characteristics. As structural components, beams have been used for various purposes, in many of which beams are often subjected to axial loads and static end moments. In the present study, an analytical solution is developed to study the coupled bending-torsion vibration of a homogeneous beam with a single delamination subjected to axial loads and static end moments. Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the "free mode" assumption in delamination vibration are adopted. This is the first study of the influences of static end moments upon the effects of delaminations on natural frequencies, critical buckling loads and critical moments for lateral instability. The results show that the effects of delamination on reducing natural frequencies, critical buckling load and critical moment for lateral instability are aggravated by the presence of static end moment. In turn, the effects of static end moments on vibration and instability characteristics are affected by the presence of delamination. The analytical results of this study can serve as a benchmark for finite element method and other numerical solutions.