The Journal covers all disciplines in the field of theoretical and applied mechanics, including solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, dynamics and control, and biomechanics. It explores analytical, computational and experimental progresses in all areas of mechanics. The Journal also encourages research in interdisciplinary subjects, and serves as a bridge between mechanics...

Operational ocean wave models need to work globally, yet current ocean wave models can only treat ice covered regions crudely. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of ice effects on wave propagation and different research methodology used in studying these effects. Based on its proximity to land or sea, sea ice can be classified as: landfast ice zone, shear zone, and the marginal ice zone. All ice covers attenuate wave energy. Only long swells can penetrate deep into an ice cover. Being closest to open water, wave propagation in the marginal ice zone is the most complex to model. The physical appearance of sea ice in the marginal ice zone varies. Grease ice, pancake ice, brash ice, floe aggregates, and continuous ice sheet may be found in this zone at different times and locations. These types of ice are formed under different thermal-mechanical forcing. There are three classic models that describe wave propagation through an idealized ice cover: mass loading, thin elastic plate, and viscous layer models. From physical arguments we may conjecture that mass loading model is suitable for disjoint aggregates of ice floes much smaller than the wavelength, thin elastic plate model is suitable for a continuous ice sheet, and the viscous layer model is suitable for grease ice. For different sea ice types we may need different wave ice interaction models. A recently proposed viscoelastic model is able to synthesize all three classic models into one. Under suitable limiting conditions it converges to the three previous models. The complete theoretical framework for evaluating wave propagation through various ice covers need to be implemented in the operational ocean wave models. In this review, we introduce the sea ice types, previous wave ice interaction models, wave attenuation mechanisms, the methods to calculate wave reflection and transmission between different ice covers, and the effect of ice floe breaking on shaping the sea ice morphology. Laboratory experiments, field measurements and numerical simulations supporting the fundamental research in wave-ice interaction models are discussed. We conclude with some outlook of future research needs in this field.

One of the major problems in structural fatigue life analysis is establishing structural load spectra under actual operating conditions. This study conducts theoretical research and experimental validation of quasi-static load spectra on bogie frame structures of high-speed trains. The quasistatic load series that corresponds to quasi-static deformation modes are identified according to the structural form and bearing conditions of high-speed train bogie frames. Moreover, a force-measuring frame is designed and manufactured based on the quasi-static load series. The load decoupling model of the quasi-static load series is then established via calibration tests. Quasi-static load-time histories, together with online tests and decoupling analysis, are obtained for the intermediate range of the Beijing—Shanghai dedicated passenger line. The damage consistency calibration of the quasi-static discrete load spectra is performed according to a damage consistency criterion and a genetic algorithm. The calibrated damage that corresponds with the quasi-static discrete load spectra satisfies the safety requirements of bogie frames.

The influences of steady aerodynamic loads on hunting stability of high-speed railway vehicles were investigated in this study. A mechanism is suggested to explain the change of hunting behavior due to actions of aerodynamic loads: the aerodynamic loads can change the position of vehicle system (consequently the contact relations), the wheel/rail normal contact forces, the gravitational restoring forces/moments and the creep forces/moments. A mathematical model for hunting stability incorporating such influences was developed. A computer program capable of incorporating the effects of aerodynamic loads based on the model was written, and the critical speeds were calculated using this program. The dependences of linear and nonlinear critical speeds on suspension parameters considering aerodynamic loads were analyzed by using the orthogonal test method, the results were also compared with the situations without aerodynamic loads. It is shown that the most dominant factors affecting linear and nonlinear critical speeds are different whether the aerodynamic loads considered or not. The damping of yaw damper is the most dominant influencing factor for linear critical speeds, while the damping of lateral damper is most dominant for nonlinear ones. When the influences of aerodynamic loads are considered, the linear critical speeds decrease with the rise of cross wind velocity, whereas it is not the case for the nonlinear critical speeds. The variation trends of critical speeds with suspension parameters can be significantly changed by aerodynamic loads. Combined actions of aerodynamic loads and suspension parameters also affect the critical speeds. The effects of such joint action are more obvious for nonlinear critical speeds.

Generating electric energy from mechanical vibration using a piezoelectric circular membrane array is presented in this paper. The electrical characteristics of the functional array consisted of three plates with varies tip masses are examined under dynamic conditions. With an optimal load resistor of 11 kΩ, an output power of 21.4mW was generated from the array in parallel connection at 150 Hz under a pre-stress of 0.8N and a vibration acceleration of 9.8m/s2. Moreover, the broadband energy harvesting using this array still can be realized with different tip masses. Three obvious output power peaks can be obtained in a frequency spectra of 110 Hz to 260 Hz. The results show that using a piezoelectric circular diaphragm array can increase significantly the output of energy compared with the use of a single plate. And by optimizing combination of tip masses with piezoelectric elements in array, the frequency range can be tuned to meet the broadband vibration. This array may possibly be exploited to design the energy harvesting for practical applications such as future high speed rail.

When the operation speed of the high-speed train increases and the weight of the carbody becomes lighter, not only does the sensitivity of the wheel/rail contact get higher, but also the vibration frequency range of the vehicle system gets enlarged and more frequencies are transmitted from the wheelset to the carbody. It is important to investigate the vibration characteristics and the dynamic frequency transmission from the wheel/rail interface to the carbody of the high-speed electric multi-uint (EMU). An elastic highspeed vehicle dynamics model is established in which the carbody, bogieframes, and wheelsets are all dealt with as flexible body. A rigid high-speed vehicle dynamics model is set up to compare with the simulation results of the elastic model. In the rigid vehicle model, the carbody, bogieframes and wheelsets are treated as rigid component while the suspension and structure parameters are the same as used in the elastic model. The dynamic characteristic of the elastic high speed vehicle is investigated in time and frequency domains and the difference of the acceleration, frequency distribution and transmission of the two types of models are presented. The results show that the spectrum power density of the vehicle decreases from the wheelset to the carbody and the acceleration transmission ratio is approximately from 1% to 10% for each suspension system. The frequency of the wheelset rotation is evident in the vibration of the flexible model and is transmitted from the wheelset to the bogieframe and to the carbody. The results of the flexible model are more reasonable than that of the rigid model. A field test data of the high speed train are presented to verify the simulation results. It shows that the simulation results are coincident with the field test data.

The running safety of high-speed trains has become a major concern of the current railway research with the rapid development of high-speed railways around the world. The basic safety requirement is to prevent the derailment. The root causes of the dynamic derailment of highspeed trains operating in severe environments are not easy to identify using the field tests or laboratory experiments. Numerical simulation using an advanced train-track interaction model is a highly efficient and low-cost approach to investigate the dynamic derailment behavior and mechanism of high-speed trains. This paper presents a three-dimensional dynamic model of a high-speed train coupled with a ballast track for dynamic derailment analysis. The model considers a train composed of multiple vehicles and the nonlinear inter-vehicle connections. The ballast track model consists of rails, fastenings, sleepers, ballasts, and roadbed, which are modeled by Euler beams, nonlinear spring-damper elements, equivalent ballast bodies, and continuous viscoelastic elements, in which the modal superposition method was used to reduce the order of the partial differential equations of Euler beams. The commonly used derailment safety assessment criteria around the world are embedded in the simulation model. The train-track model was then used to investigate the dynamic derailment responses of a high-speed train passing over a buckled track, in which the derailment mechanism and train running posture during the dynamic derailment process were analyzed in detail. The effects of train and track modelling on dynamic derailment analysis were also discussed. The numerical results indicate that the train and track modelling options have a significant effect on the dynamic derailment analysis. The inter-vehicle impacts and the track flexibility and nonlinearity should be considered in the dynamic derailment simulations.

Passive flexibility was found to enhance propulsive efficiency in swimming animals. In this study, we numerically investigate the roles of structural resonance and hydrodynamic wake resonance in optimizing efficiency of a flexible plunging foil. The results indicates that (1) optimal efficiency is not necessarily achieved when the driving frequency matches the structural eigenfrequency; (2) optimal efficiency always occurs when the driving frequency matches the wake resonant frequency of the time averaged velocity profile. Thus, the underlying principle of efficient propulsion in flexible plunging foil is the hydrodynamic wake resonance, rather than the structural resonance. In addition, we also found that whether the efficiency can be optimized at the structural resonant point depends on the strength of the leading edge vortex relative to that of the trailing edge vortex. The result of this work provides new insights into the role of passive flexibility in flapping-based propulsion.

Flexible wings of insects and bio-inspired micro air vehicles generally deform remarkably during flapping flight owing to aerodynamic and inertial forces, which is of highly nonlinear fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems. To elucidate the novel mechanisms associated with flexible wing aerodynamics in the low Reynolds number regime, we have built up a FSI model of a hawkmoth wing undergoing revolving and made an investigation on the effects of flexible wing deformation on aerodynamic performance of the revolving wing model. To take into account the characteristics of flapping wing kinematics we designed a kinematic model for the revolving wing in two-fold: acceleration and steady rotation, which are based on hovering wing kinematics of hawkmoth, Manduca sexta. Our results show that both aerodynamic and inertial forces demonstrate a pronounced increase during acceleration phase, which results in a significant wing deformation. While the aerodynamic force turns to reduce after the wing acceleration terminates due to the burst and detachment of leading-edge vortices (LEVs), the dynamic wing deformation seem to delay the burst of LEVs and hence to augment the aerodynamic force during and even after the acceleration. During the phase of steady rotation, the flexible wing model generates more ver-tical force at higher angles of attack (40°-60°) but less horizontal force than those of a rigid wing model. This is because the wing twist in spanwise owing to aerodynamic forces results in a reduction in the effective angle of attack at wing tip, which leads to enhancing the aerodynamics performance by increasing the vertical force while reducing the horizontal force. Moreover, our results point out the importance of the fluid-structure interaction in evaluating flexible wing aerodynamics: the wing deformation does play a significant role in enhancing the aerodynamic performances but works differently during acceleration and steady rotation, which is mainly induced by inertial force in acceleration but by aerodynamic forces in steady rotation.

The dynamic performance and wake structure of flapping plates with different shapes were studied using multi-block lattice Boltzman and immersed boundary method. Two typical regimes relevant to thrust behavior are identified. One is nonlinear relation between the thrust and the area moment of plate for lower area moment region and the other is linear relation for larger area moment region. The tendency of the power variation with the area moment is reasonably similar to the thrust behavior and the efficiency decreases gradually as the area moment increases. As the mechanism of the dynamic properties is associated with the evolution of vortical structures around the plate, the formation and evolution of vortical structures are investigated and the effects of the plate shape, plate area, Strouhal number and Reynolds number on the vortical structures are analyzed. The results obtained in this study provide physical insight into the understanding of the mechanisms relevant to flapping locomotion.

Operational ocean wave models need to work globally, yet current ocean wave models can only treat ice covered regions crudely. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of ice effects on wave propagation and different research methodology used in studying these effects. Based on its proximity to land or sea, sea ice can be classified as: landfast ice zone, shear zone, and the marginal ice zone. All ice covers attenuate wave energy. Only long swells can penetrate deep into an ice cover. Being closest to open water, wave propagation in the marginal ice zone is the most complex to model. The physical appearance of sea ice in the marginal ice zone varies. Grease ice, pancake ice, brash ice, floe aggregates, and continuous ice sheet may be found in this zone at different times and locations. These types of ice are formed under different thermal-mechanical forcing. There are three classic models that describe wave propagation through an idealized ice cover: mass loading, thin elastic plate, and viscous layer models. From physical arguments we may conjecture that mass loading model is suitable for disjoint aggregates of ice floes much smaller than the wavelength, thin elastic plate model is suitable for a continuous ice sheet, and the viscous layer model is suitable for grease ice. For different sea ice types we may need different wave ice interaction models. A recently proposed viscoelastic model is able to synthesize all three classic models into one. Under suitable limiting conditions it converges to the three previous models. The complete theoretical framework for evaluating wave propagation through various ice covers need to be implemented in the operational ocean wave models. In this review, we introduce the sea ice types, previous wave ice interaction models, wave attenuation mechanisms, the methods to calculate wave reflection and transmission between different ice covers, and the effect of ice floe breaking on shaping the sea ice morphology. Laboratory experiments, field measurements and numerical simulations supporting the fundamental research in wave-ice interaction models are discussed. We conclude with some outlook of future research needs in this field.

The spatial-temporal evolution of coherent structures (CS) is significant for turbulence control and drag reduction. Among the CS, low and high speed streak structures show typical burst phenomena. The analysis was based on a time series of three-dimensional and three-component (3D-3C) velocity fields of the flat plate turbulent boundary layer (TBL) measured by a Tomographic and Time-resolved PIV (Tomo TRPIV) system. Using multi-resolution wavelet transform and conditional sampling method, we extracted the intrinsic topologies and found that the streak structures appear in bar-like patterns. Furthermore, we seized locations and velocity information of transient CS, and then calculated the propagation velocity of CS based on spatial-temporal cross-correlation scanning. This laid a foundation for further studies on relevant dynamics properties.

Artificial input of energy into the flow is necessary to create and maintain a statistically stationary isotropic turbulence for sampling in studying the statistics. Due to the nonlinear coupling among different Fourier modes through the triadic interaction, whether or not various forcing schemes affect the statistics in turbulence is an important and open question. We present detailed comparison of Lagrangian statistics of fluids particles in forced isotropic turbulent flows in 1283, 2563, and 5123 simulations, with Taylor-scale Reynolds numbers in the range of 64-171, using a deterministic and a stochastic forcing scheme, respectively. Several Lagrangian statistics are compared, such as velocity and acceleration autocorrelations, and moments of Lagrangian velocity increments. The differences in the Lagrangian statistics obtained from the two forcing schemes are shown to be small, indicating that the isotropic forcing schemes used have little effects on the Lagrangian statistics in the isotropic turbulence.

A general solution for 3D Stokes flow is given which is different from, and more compact than the existing ones and more compact than them in that it involves only two scalar harmonic functions. The general solution deduced is combined with the potential theory method to study the Stokes flow induced by a rigid plate of arbitrary shape translating along the direction normal to it in an unbounded fluid. The boundary integral equation governing this problem is derived. When the plate is elliptic, exact analytical results are obtained not only for the drag force but also for the velocity distributions. These results include and complete the ones available for a circular plate. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the main results for circular and elliptic plates. In particular, the elliptic eccentricity of a plate is shown to exhibit significant influences.

The phenomenon that flow resistances are higher in micro scale flow than in normal flow is clarified through the liquid viscosity. Based on the experimental results of deionized water flow in fused silica microtubes with the inner radii of 2.5 μm, 5 μm, 7.5 μm, and 10 μm, respectively, the relationship between water flow velocity and pressure gradient along the axis of tube is analyzed, which gradually becomes nonlinear as the radius of the microtube decreases. From the correlation, a viscosity model of water flow derived from the radius of microtube and the pressure gradient is proposed. The flow results modified by the viscosity model are in accordance with those of experiments, which are verified by numerical simulation software and the Hagen-Poiseuille equation. The experimental water flow velocity in a fused silica microtube with diameter of 5.03 μm, which has not been used in the fitting and derivation of the viscosity model, is proved to be comsistent with the viscosity model, showing a rather good match with a relative difference of 5.56%.

In order to study the diffusion, migration, and distribution of pollutants among overlying water-body and porous seabed under wave conditions, a dynamic coupling numerical model is proposed. In this model, the coupling between wave field of overlying water-body and seepage of porous bed, the capture and release of pollutants in porous media, and the transport process between the two different regions are taken into account. We use the unified equations for pressure correction and pollutant concentration to solve the numerical model, which avoids repeated iteration on the interface boundary. The model is verified by several case studies. Afterwards, the processes involving release of pollutant from porous seabed and transportation to overlying water-body under different wave conditions are investigated. The results show that the water depth, wave height, and wave period have great influences on the release, capture, and transport processes for phosphorus pollutant.

The present study experimentally investigated the effect of a simulated single-horn glaze ice accreted on rotor blades on the vortex structures in the wake of a horizontal axis wind turbine by using the stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (Stereo-PIV) technique. During the experiments, four horizontal axis wind turbine models were tested, and both "free-run" and "phase-locked" Stereo-PIV measurements were carried out. Based on the "free-run" measurements, it was found that because of the simulated single-horn glaze ice, the shape, vorticity, and trajectory of tip vortices were changed significantly, and less kinetic energy of the airflow could be harvested by the wind turbine. In addition, the "phase-locked" results indicated that the presence of simulated single-horn glaze ice resulted in a dramatic reduction of the vorticity peak of the tip vortices. Moreover, as the length of the glaze ice increased, both root and tip vortex gaps were found to increase accordingly.

A dynamical system of particle growth in the convective undercooled melt driven by a biaxial straining flow is modeled. A uniformly valid asymptotic solution for the interface evolution in particle growth is obtained by means of the multiple variable expansion method. The analytical solution as a function of both azimuth angle and polar angle shows that the interface shape of particle growth in the biaxial straining flow is significantly deformed by the biaxial straining flow. The biaxial straining flow results in higher local growth rate near the surface where the flow comes in and leads to lower local growth rate near the surface where the flow goes out. Due to the difference in local growth rate, an initially spherical particle will evolve into a prolate barrellike shape in the biaxial straining flow.

This paper extends the covariant derivative under curved coordinate systems in 3D Euclid space. Based on the axiom of the covariant form invariability, the classical covariant derivative that can only act on components is extended to the generalized covariant derivative that can act on any geometric quantity including base vectors, vectors and tensors. Under the axiom, the algebra structure of the generalized covariant derivative is proved to be covariant differential ring. Based on the powerful operation capabilities and simple analytical properties of the generalized covariant derivative, the tensor analysis in curved coordinate systems is simplified to a large extent.

This paper extends the classical covariant derivative to the generalized covariant derivative on curved surfaces. The basement for the extension is similar to the previous paper, i.e., the axiom of the covariant form invariability. Based on the generalized covariant derivative, a covariant differential transformation group with orthogonal duality is set up. Through such orthogonal duality, tensor analysis on curved surfaces is simplified intensively. Under the covariant differential transformation group, the differential invariabilities and integral invariabilities are constructed on curved surfaces.

This paper further extends the generalized covariant derivative from the first covariant derivative to the second one on curved surfaces. Through the linear transformation between the first generalized covariant derivative and the second one, the second covariant differential transformation group is set up. Under this transformation group, the second class of differential invariants and integral invariants on curved surfaces is made clear. Besides, the symmetric structure of the tensor analysis on curved surfaces are revealed.

It is known that structural optimization may lead to designs of structures having low stability and sometimes even kinematically unstable designs. This paper presents a robust design method for improving the stability of optimized structures. A new approach is proposed, in which certain perturbation loads are introduced and the corresponding compliance is added to the objective function as a penalization. The stability of the optimized structures can thus be improved substantially by considering structural responses to the original and the introduced loads. Numerical examples show the simplicity and effectiveness of the proposed method.

A hierarchical model is developed to predict the streaming potential (SP) in the canaliculi of a loaded osteon. Canaliculi are assumed to run straight across the osteon annular cylinder wall, while disregarding the effect of lacuna. SP is generalized by the canalicular fluid flow. Analytical solutions are obtained for the canalicular fluid velocity, pressure, and SP. Results demonstrate that SP amplitude (SPA) is proportional to the pressure difference, strain amplitude, frequency, and strain rate amplitude. However, the key loading factor governing SP is the strain rate, which is a representative loading parameter under the specific physiological state. Moreover, SPA is independent of canalicular length. This model links external loads to the canalicular fluid pressure, velocity, and SP, which can facilitate further understanding of the mechanotransduction and electromechanotransduction mechanisms of bones.

A mathematical model of the human cardiovascular system in conjunction with an accurate lumped model for a stenosis can provide better insights into the pressure wave propagation at pathological conditions. In this study, a theoretical relation between pressure drop and flow rate based on Lorentz's reciprocal theorem is derived, which offers an identity to describe the relevance of the geometry and the convective momentum transport to the drag force. A voxelbased simulator V-FLOW VOF3D, where the vessel geometry is expressed by using volume of fluid (VOF) functions, is employed to find the flow distribution in an idealized stenosis vessel and the identity was validated numerically. It is revealed from the correlation that the pressure drop of NS flow in a stenosis vessel can be decomposed into a linear term caused by Stokes flow with the same boundary conditions, and two nonlinear terms. Furthermore, the linear term for the pressure drop of Stokes flow can be summarized as a correlation by using a modified equation of lubrication theory, which gives favorable results compared to the numerical ones. The contribution of the nonlinear terms to the pressure drop was analyzed numerically, and it is found that geometric shape and momentum transport are the primary factors for the enhancement of drag force. This work paves a way to simulate the blood flow and pressure propagation under different stenosis conditions by using 1D mathematical model.

It has been proved that there exists a certain correlation between fingertip temperature oscillations and blood flow oscillations. In this work, a porous media model of human hand is presented to investigate how the blood flow oscillation in the endothelial frequency band influences fingertip skin temperature oscillations. The porosity which represents the density of micro vessels is assumed to vary periodically and is a function of the skin temperature. Finite element analysis of skin temperature for a contra lateral hand under a cooling test was conducted. Subsequently, wavelet analysis was carried out to extract the temperature oscillations of the data through the numerical analysis and experimental measurements. Furthermore, the oscillations extracted from both numerical analyses and experiments were statistically analyzed to compare the amplitude. The simulation and experimental results show that for the subjects in cardiovascular health, the skin temperature fluctuations in endothelial frequency decrease during the cooling test and increase gradually after cooling, implying that the assumed porosity variation can represent the vasomotion in the endothelial frequency band.