Abstract Combustion phenomena were discovered still in far ancient time of China. From the 50’s of the last century, owing to the fast development of energy and power, aeronautical and astronautical, chemical and metallurgical engineering, combustion theory started to be studied in China. The Chinese scientists studied the theory of ignition, laminar flame propagation, droplet combustion and spray combustion. Later, from the 80’s of the last century, numerical modeling of combustion started to be studied in China, including turbulence modeling, turbulent combustion modeling, two-phase turbulence modeling and two-phase combustion modeling, in the approaches of Reynolds-Navier-Stokes (RANS) modeling, large-eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) of combustion. Due to the limitation of a paper size, this paper gives only a review of studies on theory and modeling of droplet and spray combustion in China.