Aiming at the problem of unstable buffering process of electromagnetic buffer (EMB) under intensive impact load, a three-segment electromagnetic buffer is proposed. The inner tube and air-gap of EMB are divided into three segments. The finite element analysis and impact test results show that the resultant resistance force (RRF) curve has two hump-shaped peaks, which is the reason for the unstable buffering process. In order to stabilize the buffering process, a multi-objective optimization design method of EMB based on Nash game theory is proposed. Firstly, the optimization model is established by taking the two peaks of the RRF curve and the maximum buffer displacement as the optimization objectives. Secondly, the multi-objective optimization model is transformed into a game model by sensitivity analysis and fuzzy clustering. Then, a Nash equilibrium solution strategy of EMB Nash game model based on symmetric elitist information exchange is proposed, which integrates gene expression programming (GEP) surrogate model and genetic algorithm (GA) as an optimization solver. Finally, the Nash equilibrium of the game model is obtained. The results show that the smoothness of the RRF curve has been significantly improved, which proves the effectiveness of the game strategy.